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Pediatric Emergencies

Allergic reactions
Allergic disorders are one of the most common chronic diseases among children. After a child is exposed to an allergen, the body builds up immunities to fight the seemingly dangerous substance.
A child's natural curiosity and eagerness may result in scrapes and cuts. Most minor injuries in children are scrapes, in which the outer layers of skin have been scraped off.
Broken bones in children
Broken bones are the fourth most common injury among children under age six, mostly caused by falls or during car accidents. Young bones are more flexible and are better able to absorb shock than adults' bones, but because the bones are still growing, they're more vulnerable to damage to the plates at the ends of the bones that regulate future growth.
A burn may be caused either by heat or by a chemical. Burns are classified as first-degree, the mildest; second-degree, which causes blistering and swelling; or third-degree, which causes serious injury.
Childhood sports injuries
Kids today are often involved in athletic activities and organized sports, which means a likelihood of injuring themselves. As a result, there are injuries that are particular to kids in sports, whether soccer, hockey, biking, skiing, horseback riding, or in-line skating.
Childhood sprains
A sprain is a stretched or torn ligament (LIG-uh-munt) or muscle tendon near a joint. Symptoms include pain when moving or putting weight on the affected joint, rapid swelling, tenderness when touched, bruising, and loss of movement.
Children and nosebleeds
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, some children, especially preschoolers, have one or more nosebleeds a week, which is neither abnormal nor dangerous.
Children with muscle cramps
A muscle cramp, sometimes called a 'charley horse,' is a sudden spasm (SPAZZ-um) and pain in one or more muscles, often in the calf or thigh. It can be caused if a muscle is overworked, or it may happen spontaneously during sleep.
Dental injury
If a permanent tooth that has been knocked out can be reimplanted within a half-hour of the injury, there's a 90 percent chance the tooth will survive.
If a child has suffered a serious fall, contact a pediatrician, or call 9-1-1. When there's an apparent injury to the neck, spine, or leg, don't move the child.
Insect stings
Signs and symptoms that a child has been stung by an insect include pain, local swelling, burning, and itching. If the child is allergic, there also may be nausea, shock, or unconsciousness.
Pediatric animal bites
Most animal bites to children are not from unknown or wild animals but, rather, animals the child knows, sometimes including the family pet. If your child's been bitten by any animal-- wild or domestic-- clean the wound at once with mild soap and water.
Pediatric choking
Choking is the most common cause of accidental death in children under age one, and the danger remains significant until age five. In children, it frequently may be caused by a liquid that 'goes down the wrong pipe,' which isn't usually harmful.
Pediatric head injury
Head injuries may be more severe than they seem. To be safe, call a doctor immediately or, when necessary, call 9-1-1. If the injury is mild, a child will remain alert and awake, and crying shouldn't last more than ten minutes.
Pulled muscles in children
Children usually stay active, but occasionally they overdo it and pull a muscle. Overworked, overstretched muscles may cause the child to complain of soreness, and you may see some swelling.
When your child's skin endures too much exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays, it responds with a sunburn. To prevent a sunburn, always apply sunscreen with a protection factor of at least 15 to areas of your child's skin that will be exposed to the sun.
What is rheumatic fever?
Rheumatic (roo-MAH-tic) fever is a condition that usually affects children between the ages of 5 and 15. It's believed to be caused by an allergic reaction to certain strains of streptococcal (strep-tuh-KOE-kul) bacteria.

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